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Russian citizenship: a guide to the application process

Final replace on June 11, 2021

Ensure you’re prepared to apply for Russian citizenship by getting an understanding of the nation’s nationality legislation.

If you’re relocating to Russia or trying to reside their for a lengthy time frame, you’ll be able to select between Russian everlasting residency or full Russian citizenship. Each afford you the rights of Russian nationals, though there are variations between them.

There are completely different circumstances and necessities relying on the place you’re travelling from, with these from Russian talking former Soviet international locations in a position to extra simply settle in Russia. There are additionally advantages for refugees and those that enter on a Extremely Expert Professionals visa. Much more info on Russian entry visas is out there in our article right here.

This guide to Russian citizenship and Russian everlasting residency contains info on subjects reminiscent of:

Who can get a Russian passport or Russian everlasting residency?

International nationals in Russia can apply for Russian everlasting residency after dwelling in Russia for one 12 months and for naturalization as a Russian citizen after 5 years of everlasting residence. You can even do that sooner in the event you meet certain criteria.

Russian citizenship

So as to receive Russian everlasting residency, you need to legally reside in Russia with a legitimate Russian short-term residence allow (aside from nationals from Belarus, refugees from Turkmenistan, and people getting into on a Extremely Expert Migrant visa, who’re entitled to everlasting residence upon getting into Russia). That is usually for these in Russia on a long-stay visa reminiscent of a Russian work visa. Temporary residence permits have authorities quotas and sure classes of international residents obtain choice. See our guide to Russian visas and residence permits for much more info.

The Russian General Directorate of Migratory Affairs (GUVM) points residence permits and Russian passports.

Variations: Russian citizenship or Russian everlasting residency?

The Russian everlasting residence allow is a step in the direction of taking over Russian citizenship. Many individuals are glad to settle in Russia on everlasting residency alone. Nevertheless, there are specific rights and benefits for each Russian residents and everlasting residents. Each might take up employment in Russia with out a work allow. As well as to this, each are in a position to:

  • freely enter and exit Russia without having a visa
  • entry Russian social companies
  • completely register at a Russian handle
  • have interaction in self-employment or arrange a enterprise
  • vote in native elections and referendums

The next applies solely to these with full Russian citizenship:

  • issued with a Russian passport (ranked 43rd in the world on the passport index)
  • full electoral rights in all nationwide elections
  • proper to work in the state our bodies of the Russian Federation
  • obligation to serve in the Russian army
  • can’t be deported
  • can reside abroad for a limiteless time frame

The Russian permanent residence permit is legitimate for 5 years however will be renewed a limiteless variety of occasions. Nevertheless, it has to be registered with the GUVM yearly. If a Russian everlasting residence allow expires, it can’t be renewed. It’s going to additionally turn out to be invalid in the event you go away the nation for an unbroken six month interval.

In case you take full Russian citizenship via naturalization, additionally, you will want to resign the citizenship of your own home nation. Additionally, you will have to pay the Russian citizenship charge and embark on a process that may take up to a 12 months to full.

Making use of for Russian everlasting residence

You possibly can apply for Russian everlasting residence after one 12 months of legally residing in Russia. You must do that six months earlier than your short-term residence allow expires. The Russian everlasting residence allow is legitimate for 5 years, will be prolonged a limiteless variety of occasions nevertheless it can’t be issued past the expiration date of your passport. Renewal of a Russian everlasting residence allow have to be performed no less than two months prior to its expiration. In case your allow is revoked, nonetheless, you need to go away Russia inside 15 days.

Russian everlasting residence purposes want to be made at the GUVM workplace in your area. An inventory of native GUVM workplaces is available here. Exact documents required differ relying on whether or not you’re from a CIS or non-CIS nation, however will embody the following:

  • 4 x passport-sized images
  • passport or legitimate ID
  • proof of earnings to maintain your self and any relations you’re supporting
  • proof of lodging
  • medical certificates confirming absence of HIV (AIDS)
  • proof of proficiency in Russian language, data of Russian historical past and of the foundations of the Russian Federation
Russian visa requirements

If you’re dwelling in Russia, you’ll be able to examine your eligibility for a Russian everlasting residence allow here.

Russian citizenship necessities

Present Russian citizenship necessities are in accordance to the 2002 Russian Citizenship Act. You possibly can purchase Russian citizenship via the following methods:

  • by delivery
  • via naturalization (both widespread or simplified process)
  • by restoration of citizenship for former residents

Russian citizenship by delivery

A toddler can declare Russian citizenship via delivery if any of the following applies:

  • each mother and father are Russian residents (or one guardian if a single guardian)
  • if one guardian is a Russian citizen and the different is stateless
  • one guardian is a Russian citizen and the different is a international nationwide, if the little one is born in Russia
  • one guardian is a Russian citizen and the different is a international nationwide, if the little one is born exterior Russia and hasn’t been granted citizenship of any international nation
  • each mother and father are international nationals dwelling in Russia, if the little one is born in Russia and hasn’t been granted citizenship of any international nation
  • a little one in Russia with out mother and father, if nonetheless parent-less after a 6 month interval

Russian citizenship by naturalization (widespread process)

International nationals dwelling in Russia can apply for citizenship by naturalization in the event that they meet the following necessities:

  • they maintain a legitimate everlasting residence allow
  • they’ve lived as a everlasting resident in Russia for 5 years (with no durations dwelling exterior Russia exceeding three months in anyone 12 months)
  • agree to abide by the Russian structure
  • can present proof of authorized technique of subsistence for themselves and any relations they’re supporting
  • have renounced the citizenship of their dwelling nation (aside from international locations which have twin citizenship treaties with Russia)
  • can present proof of fundamental command of the Russian language

The Russian everlasting residence requirement can reduce to one 12 months for the following teams:

  • those that have entered Russia on a Extremely Certified Skilled visa
  • those that have refugee standing

Russian citizenship by naturalization (simplified process)

Sure classes of international nationwide can apply for Russian citizenship by naturalization as quickly as they’ve turn out to be everlasting residents. These are international nationals who:

  • have no less than one guardian who’s a Russian citizen dwelling in Russia
  • had former USSR citizenship however haven’t taken citizenship of any former USSR nation
  • are residents of former USSR states who’ve acquired secondary, vocational, or larger training in Russia after 2002
  • had been USSR residents born in Soviet Russia
  • had been married to a Russian citizen for no less than three years
  • have a incapacity and have a succesful little one who’s a Russian citizen
  • have a incapacity and are from a former USSR nation
  • are from a former USSR nation and had been legally residing in Russia on 1 July 2002
  • World Struggle Two veterans who had been residents of the former USSR
  • are a little one or a disabled individual with a authorized guardian who’s a Russian citizen

Restoration of citizenship for former Russian residents

Former Russian residents who’ve given up their Russian citizenship voluntarily might have their Russian citizenship reinstated after three years of residence in Russia.

Russia additionally has a joint worldwide treaty with Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan enabling residents of these international locations to apply for Russian citizenship utilizing a simplified process.

Making use of for Russian citizenship

The GUVM processes Russian citizenship purposes. Earlier than making use of for Russian citizenship by naturalization, you want to submit a request to a licensed company to resign the citizenship you maintain inside your own home nation. This request will solely be carried via upon being efficiently granted Russian citizenship.

You will want to submit your Russian citizenship application via the GUVM, in addition to paperwork together with:

  • proof of Russian language functionality
  • proof of earnings
  • application to resign present citizenship
Russian permanent residency

In case your Russian citizenship application is profitable, you may be issued with an inner Russian passport (to get replaced with a citizen’s id card in 2018) and also will be eligible to apply for a Russian passport for worldwide journey. Russian passports are legitimate for 10 years.

Selections on Russian citizenship purposes can take up to a 12 months and are made by the Workplace of the President of the Russian Federation. Functions by way of the simplified process take up to six months and are made by the GUVM. In case your application for Russian citizenship is rejected, nonetheless, you’re entitled to appeal through the courts. You must contact your local GUVM office for info.

Russian citizenship prices

The Russian citizenship value is R3500 for the application. These from former USSR international locations who haven’t taken up citizenship in these international locations, in addition to parent-less kids, are exempt from this charge. The price of a Russian passport is R3500 for adults and R1500 for youngsters. It’s attainable to buy a particular shorter-term passport that lasts for 5 years for R2000.

Twin nationality in Russia

Russian dual citizenship is a complicated situation. On the one hand, Russia formally permits twin citizenship and Russian residents can purchase citizenship overseas with out giving up their Russian citizenship. Nevertheless, the Russian state sees twin residents as Russians solely. Actually, Russia has twin citizenship treaties with simply two international locations: Tajikistan and Turkmenistan. Citizenships of those international locations are equal. Nevertheless, recent changes in the law imply that Russian residents buying twin nationality overseas want to inform their native GUVM workplace inside 60 days.

In case you turn out to be a Russian citizen via naturalization, you need to resign the citizenship of your own home nation throughout the Russian citizenship application process. This may increasingly present grounds for you completely shedding your citizenship of your own home nation, relying on what the guidelines are concerning citizenship. Additionally, you will want to enquire with the related authorities of your own home nation if in case you have considerations concerning this.


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